Language: NOR | ENG

Layout of the PhD thesis

PhD theses follow the same norms as other academic texts. In addition, there are some special requirements for the structure of the PhD thesis, i.e. all parts must appear in a specific order. On this page you will find information about the layout, as well as tips and advice on text formatting.

The structure of the PhD thesis

  • Some document sections should start on the right-hand page / odd-number page. Often, a blank page must be inserted for this requirement to be met. Use page breaks when entering a blank page, not Enter. Print the document in order to verify how the layout works.

The following parts of the document shall start on the right-hand page / odd-number page, except where otherwise stated, and shall appear in the following order:

  • Title page should be unnumbered. Use INN University’s template for title page with colophon page (copyright information, etc.). On the colophon page, only programme names are inserted. 
  • Summary Norwegian p. i
  • Summary English p. ii
    • Should be written in Norwegian and in English, and should be max one page each.
  • Introduction p. iii
    • The supervisor must be noted cf. § 10-1 of the PhD Regulations
    • If it is an article-based thesis, the introduction should be written in the same language as the cover chapter (“kappe”).
  • Table of contents p. v
  • Tables and charts on the following page (if needed)
  • Each main chapter in a monograph and cover chapter (Chapter 1 p. 1, etc.)
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • For article-based thesis: use numbered article separators, and make sure that this, as well as the first page of each article, begin on the right-hand page / odd-number page. Already published articles are inserted into the Word document as PDF files. If you need help with this, please contact

Guidance on text formatting

  • Font size: 12 pt or 13 pt with one and a half line spacing. Quotation may have somewhat smaller font size, indentation and single line spacing. The theses are printed in 17x24 cm format, approx. 81% of A4. If you are unsure of the font size in print format, you can scale down the format.
  • Font: Times New Roman or another standard Word font.
  • Page numbering: Bottom of page and centred.
  • Table of Contents: Should not display more than three levels even if multiple levels are used in the text. It is strongly recommended to automatically generate the table of contents using header styles. 
  • Text alignment: Left or block aligned.
  • Margins: 2.5 cm for all pages, i.e. the standard in Word.
  • Paragraphs: Enter by using the Enter key once so that there is a small space between each paragraph.
  • Chart and table list: It is strongly recommended to generate these using styles. Create separate lists for charts (including pictures) and tables. Use the designations Chart List and / or Table List. 
  • Illustrations:
    • Only used if necessary for illustrating a point in the text, and they should also be commented on and used in the text.
    • Examine whether permission must be obtained for the use of illustrations. See more about illustrations and copyrights in the APA manual (p. 57).
    • Illustrations from the Colourbox image service can be used free of charge through INN University's subscription.
    • Create and edit the illustration using other programs before inserting them into the word processor.
    • Insert the illustrations created in other programs at the end of the writing process.

File format for submission for evaluation

The thesis must be converted from a Word document to PDF before submission for printing and evaluation.

  • If you are using a different device than the one you normally use when converting from Word file to PDF file, it is important to look carefully at the layout of the Word file on your new PC. The layout of the file can change from one PC to another.
  • If the resolution is poorer and the sheet size is different in PDF in comparison to Word, you can use "Ctrl + p" and print to PDF instead of using the PDF conversion button in the Word toolbar.
  • If problems arise with the thesis file, please contact
  • Submit in A4 PDF file format. Use a meaningful name for the file, e.g. firstname_lastname_phd

Binding and submission

The thesis must be submitted in five bound hard copies. You may want to print a copy first and check that the layout is correct, cf. the previously mentioned guidelines. You can get you thesis bound at the following campuses:

  • Lillehammer: Binding of thesis can be done at SINN bookstore.
  • Hamar: Binding agreement can be made at the library and reception.
  • Elverum: Binding agreement can be made at SINN bookstore.

After you have bound your thesis, submit it for evaluation.

Information on the submission of a thesis can be found in the PhD Handbook.