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A student who writes a thesis is the copyright holder of the work, and has full copyright under the Copyright Act. The student is free to give INN University permission to publish the assignment in Brage.

Publishing in Brage is regulated by the Copyright Act, and does not impose any restriction on the exclusive right of the author to make use of his intellectual work by making permanent or temporary copies, and by making it available to the public. Publishing in Brage therefore requires the author to consent to do so.

In order for the publication agreement to be valid, the student must give her/his consent. This is done upon submission to Inspera.


When you write a text, such as a master's thesis, you are the copyright owner. Copyright means that you have the exclusive right to make copies of the work. The legal basis for copyright is the Copyright Act (The Act of 15 June 2018 No. 40 on copyright of intellectual property, etc.).

A work must have a so-called “originality” in order to fall under copyright protection. That is, the intellectual work must be the result of original, creative efforts on the part of the author. In other words, no two people should be able to create an equal work independently of each other. Copyright protects only the specific design the author has given a work of intellectual property. This means that ideas, factual information and mathematical formulas expressed in a work can be freely used by others.

Copyright gives the author two types of rights; economic and ideal rights. Economic rights include copy-making and making the work available to the public through dissemination. Ideal rights entail that the person who has created a work has the right to be named as the creator, as good practice indicates. There are limitations to copyright, which means, among other things, that others have the right to cite or make copies for private use.

Copyright is created automatically upon creation of the work and does not require any registration. The protection period lasts for the life of the author and 70 years after her or his death.

Publishing in Brage

For the content in Brage, this means that the author or right-holder retains the copyright of the publication, but gives the users permission to copy and cite the work and pass it on to others. One condition is that the name of the author(s) and publisher is stated. Commercial use of the work is not permitted without prior written agreement with the author. Commercial use here means those cases where a third party wishes to commercially exploit the material. Furthermore, no changes may be made to the work.

Copyright for images, photographs and illustrations

If you want to use pictures of original artwork, you should first check if the artist is a member of BONO. Universities Norway has entered into an agreement with BONO that allows students to use images in internal assignments without asking for the author's permission as long as the author is a member of BONO.

Go to BONO to search for a photographer/artist.

If you wish to reproduce works of art that are not covered by the agreement, you must apply for permission in each individual case.

See for information on how to apply for a permit.